This discussion paper provides a review of recent developments and thought leadership in resilience and adaptation policy and governance in Europe, with selected international examples. It is based on the authors’ own expertise and experiences as well as reports, case studies and resilience strategies and plans. The paper offers an emerging set of recommendations for how European regions can approach the task of reforming the governance of climate resilience. A comprehensive review of different approaches to regional resilience governance was beyond the scope of work. One of our key recommendations is that the case for governance reforms would be greatly strengthened by systematic analysis of the strengths and weakness of different approaches.